Temporal Logic with Cyclic Counting and the Degree of Aperiodicity of
Finite Automata
Zoltán Ésik
December 2001 |

## Abstract:
We define the degree of aperiodicity of finite automata and
show that for every set of positive integers, the class of
finite automata whose degree of aperiodicity belongs to the division ideal
generated by is closed with respect to direct products, disjoint unions,
subautomata, homomorphic images and renamings. These closure conditions
define q-varieties of finite automata. We show that q-varieties are in a
one-to-one correspondence with literal varieties of regular languages. We
also characterize as the cascade product of a variety of
counters with the variety of aperiodic (or counter-free) automata. We then
use the notion of degree of aperiodicity to characterize the expressive power
of first-order logic and temporal logic with cyclic counting with respect to
any given set of moduli. It follows that when is finite, then it is
decidable whether a regular language is definable in first-order or temporal
logic with cyclic counting with respect to moduli in
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